What forces shape the Earth?

2.1 Structure of our Earth

Starter: Has the structure of the Earth changed over time?

  • Video Clip 1 – Journey to the Centre of the Earth (1959)
  • Video Clip 2 – At the Earth’s Core (1976)
  • Video Clip 3 – The Core (2003)

For each movie clip write a summary paragraph on how it represents the structure of the earth. How has our view of the Earth’s Structure changed (according to the film trailers)?

The Structure of the Earth – diagram and handout

What’s inside our Earth song

Geo Challenge: How deep is the deepest hole we have made in the Earth’s crust? Where is it located?

2.2 How many candles does Mother Earth’s have on her birthday cake?

Class notes: How old is the Earth?

Click here for How old is the Earth Task Sheet. Find out more Geological Time Scale

  • 4.6 billion years ago: Earth is formed, along with the other planets
  • 4.2 billion years ago : Continents begin to form
  • 3.7 billion years ago: Earth’s crust solidifies
  • 3.5 billion years ago: First life appears in oceans
  • 3.25 billion years ago: Photosynthesis begins in oceans
  • 2.4 billion years ago: Oceans contain significant amounts of oxygen
  • 1.9 billion years ago: First cells with nuclei appear in oceans
  • 0.65 billion years ago: First multicellular organisms appear
  • 0.5 billion years ago: First land plants with inner vessels
  • 230 million years ago: Age of Dinosaurs begins
  • 200 million years ago: Supercontinent (Pangaea) starts to break up; continents drifting apart
  • 65 million years ago: Age of Dinosaurs ends, with mass extinction of 70% of all living things
  • 3.5 million years ago: First proto-humans appear, in what is now Africa
  • 100,000 years ago: First Homo sapiens appear
  • 10,000 years ago: Recorded human history begins

Geo Challenge: How do we know the Earth is 4.6 billion years old?

2.3 Geography rocks! Rock Types and Rock Formation


Click on the image above to discover some fun facts about rocks.

TASK: What is your favourite rock?

Choose a rock from this list and prepare a three slide PowerPoint or Prezi Presentation to convince your classmates that the rock you have chosen is the best rock in the world!

Ensure that your presentation explains:

  • whether your ‘favourite’ rock is an igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rock
  • what it is used for by humans
  • where it can be found


Antilles Arc Subduction Diagram

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